Transit-Oriented Development:Purpose of Tool:
Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) is an increasingly popular tool that is focused on the creation of more livable communities that are centered around transit. TOD includes the integration of land use and transit through the creation of compact, walkable, mixed-use communities within walking distance of a transit stop or station. TOD can be an effective tool in, reducing congestion, increasing transit use, and expanding housing choices.
Benefits of Using Tool:
TOD benefits the community in the following ways:
Steps Involved to Use Tool:
Elements of TODs include:
Special Requirements to Use Tool:
Implementation of a TOD requires a supportive local real estate market and willing and interested developers. The proper land use mixes and marketing strategies are also critical, and it is important that the developer be included in the station area planning. This joint participation between the local government and the developer or private sector is important in reducing the risk associated with the project. The local government and the transit provider should encourage and include land use policies and design guidelines that facilitate TODs.
Specials Resources Needed to Use Tool:
TODs and other similar mixed-use developments provide financing challenges, and creative solutions are often needed for the project to be implemented. There are a number of strategies available to encourage TODs, which include federal grants, tax increment financing (TIF), public-private partnerships, and joint public-private ventures. Local government assistance and incentives can be in the form of density bonuses, key public infrastructure, and reduced approval timelines.
Communities / Agencies that Have Used Tool:
Metro, Planning and Conservation
600 NE Grand Aveve
Portland, OR 97232
City of Austin
Neighborhood Planning and Zoning Department
505 Barton Springs Road, 5th Floor
Austin, TX 78704
BART Planning Department
P.O. Box 12688
Oakland, CA 94604
Metrics to Use to Monitor Tool Effectiveness:
The greatest benefit of TODs is increased ridership. A study in California found that among those who drove to work when they lived away from transit, 52.3% switched to transit commuting upon moving to within a ½ mile walking distance of a rail station. TOD also increases the share of rail trips that are accessed by walk-and-ride and bike-and-ride uses, which can reduce the need for parking. This increased transit usage can be attributed to the surrounding mixed-use development around the transit stations.
In addition, most research suggests that being near transit enhances property values and rents. In Hillsboro, Oregon, prices for units near the local transit station were 20% to 30% above the area’s average. Near a light-rail station in Dallas, office and retail space was 40% above market rates and even higher premiums have been recorded in Washington Metrorail stations in Arlington, Virginia and Bethesda, Maryland.
List of Resources to Obtain Additional Info: